Journal of Energy Security

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Kazakhstan is opting for nuclear engagement, not deterrence

With North Korea wreaking havoc by testing nuclear weapons and missiles, and with the Iranian nuclear program becoming once again the focus of U.S. foreign policy, Washington is searching for solutions to both crises. In 1991, Kazakhstan hosted one of the largest nuclear test sites of the Soviet empire, as well as the fourth largest nuclear arsenal in the world, larger than that of the United Kingdom, France, and China combined. Although wedged between two nuclear-armed giants, Kazakhstan chose to accede to START-I, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. Under these, Kazakhstan relinquished all nuclear warheads to Russia instead of maintaining and building up an independent deterrent it could ill afford. This was vastly consequential — and highly controversial. Read the rest here.

 

United States and Canada Must Jointly Develop North American Energy Market

With Canada's complex and costly extraction and high transportation costs, the enduring low oil prices have hit the country particularly hard. Furthermore, possible alleviative measures such as pipeline and LNG terminal expansion face not only domestic but also U.S. opposition. TransCanada’s recent acquisition of the US-based Columbia Pipeline Group Ltd however, should allow it to export more easily to the U.S., and hopefully represents a step towards further cooperation between the U.S. and Canada in the North American energy market.

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China’s “One Belt - One Road” Mega-Project Will Boost Eurasian Natural Gas Opportunities

China is expanding its influence westward with the “New Silk Road” project, which will prominently feature natural gas projects and maritime trading. If completed, the project will connect Pacific to Atlantic, and be the largest infrastructure undertaking ever built. This project has the possibility of creating millions of jobs, providing security in Central and South Asia, as well as giving a way for energy resources to flow to new consumers in developing regions.

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Beyond Oil and Gas: Kazakhstan Bets its Future on Reform

With escalation on and near Russian soil, Western Europe is searching for an alternative gas and oil supplier; Kazakhstan may be the likely candidate.  Kazakhstan is in the midst of modernizing, and is enthusiastically looking for opportunities to participate in the global economy.  The country is among the top 15 in the world when it comes to essential oil reserves and has expressed willingness to develop these reserves. Kazakhstan also partnered with China in the creation of large energy cooperation projects which are part of the New Silk Road.

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Turkey threatens the major prospects for Eastern Med gas supply

With the development of the Aphrodite offshore natural gas field and the potentially game-changing East Med pipeline, the Eastern Mediterranean can and should play a vital role in ensuring European energy security. Turkey does not recognize Cyprus as a sovereign country and is attempting to block Cypriot oil and gas exploration, claiming the share of Turkish Cypriots in any hydrocarbon wealth.  The large-scale undertaking brings many economic and political benefits to all the countries involved, including Turkey.  However, the project is not likely to be realized without Turkey’s participation, and such cooperation is not likely without the US and EU pressure on Ankara.

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